indicates possessive; nominalizes verbs and adjectives; substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases; (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion; (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis; (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
topic marker particle; indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated); adds emphasis
indicates direct object of action; indicates subject of causative expression; indicates an area traversed; indicates time (period) over which action takes place; indicates point of departure or separation of action; indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
at (place, time); in; to (direction, state); toward; for (purpose); because of (reason); for
indicates sentence subject (occasionally object); indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions); but; however; regardless of; whether (or not)
if; when; and; with; used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.); promoted pawn; indicates a question
at; in; at; when; by; with; and then
too; also; both A and B; A as well as B; even; as much as
be; is; did; (have) done; please; do
from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since; from (originator); by; because; since; out of (constituent, part)
hey; you; hey; hey; hold on; yo
yes?; no?; or; whether or not; some- (e.g. something, someone); hmm; huh
to do; to carry out; to cause to become; to make (into); to serve as; to act as; to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
thing; matter; incident; occurrence; circumstances; situation; work
that; it; then; that point (in time); (arch.) there; (arch.) you
to be; to exist; to have; to be located; to be equipped with; to happen
to become; to get; to result in; to prove to be; to consist of; to be composed of; to succeed
right?; don't you think; hey; come on; listen
don't; do; hey; listen; now, ...; well, ...
you said; he said; if ... then; do you seriously think that; I already told you; you should know by now that; the said ...
the expectation is that ...; the reason is that ...; the fact is that ...; the explanation is that ...; it is that ...
to say; to utter; to name; to call; to go (e.g. "the alarm went ping"); to make a noise
that; the; part (as in "part two"); um ...; er ...
Mr.; Mrs.; Miss; politeness marker
to think; to consider; to think (of doing); to plan (to do); to judge; to assess; to imagine
to be (of animate objects); to exist; to stay; to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing
to; for; in order to; for; as for; regarding
in that way; thus; so; so?
but; however; even; however; no matter how; ... or something; either ... or ...
this; last (couple of years, etc.); these; you (as in "you liar")
nonexistent; not being (there); unowned; not had; unique; not; impossible
to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to come back; to do ... and come back; to come to be; to become
only; just; merely; as much as; to the extent of; enough to
good; excellent; sufficient; enough; profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
to give; to let (one) have; to give; to do for one; to take the trouble to do; to do to someone's disadvantage
to see; to look; to examine; to look over; to look after; to attend to; to experience
seems; I think; I guess; don't you agree?; I thought you'd say that!
this; this one; this person; now; this point (in time); here; used to stress the subject of a sentence
to finish; to stop; to close (a business, etc.); to close down; to put away; to put back
such; that sort of; that kind of; no way!; never!
thing; object; one's things; possessions; things; something; quality
called; named; as many as; as much as; all ...; every single ...
so; therefore; accordingly; like I said; I told you already
to do; to undertake; to send; to dispatch; to put; to move; to give (esp. to someone of equal or lower status)
yes; yeah; huh?; what?; not; 's
and; besides; because; since; the thing is; for one thing