indicates possessive; nominalizes verbs and adjectives; substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases; (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion; (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis; (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
topic marker particle; indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated); adds emphasis
indicates sentence subject (occasionally object); indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions); but; however; regardless of; whether (or not)
at (place, time); in; to (direction, state); toward; for (purpose); because of (reason); for
indicates direct object of action; indicates subject of causative expression; indicates an area traversed; indicates time (period) over which action takes place; indicates point of departure or separation of action; indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
at; in; at; when; by; with; and then
be; is; did; (have) done; please; do
if; when; and; with; used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.); promoted pawn; indicates a question
right?; don't you think; hey; come on; listen
yes?; no?; or; whether or not; some- (e.g. something, someone); hmm; huh
hey; you; hey; hey; hold on; yo
the expectation is that ...; the reason is that ...; the fact is that ...; the explanation is that ...; it is that ...
too; also; both A and B; A as well as B; even; as much as
yes; that is correct; understood; I see; present; here; pardon?
from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since; from (originator); by; because; since; out of (constituent, part)
Mr.; Mrs.; Miss; politeness marker
Duce; Il Duce (title assumed by Mussolini)
you said; he said; if ... then; do you seriously think that; I already told you; you should know by now that; the said ...
to go; to move (in a direction or towards a specific location); to proceed; to take place; to pass through; to come and go; to walk
please (give me); please (do for me)
to do; to undertake; to send; to dispatch; to put; to move; to give (esp. to someone of equal or lower status)
tank (military vehicle); chariot
don't; do; hey; listen; now, ...; well, ...
to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to come back; to do ... and come back; to come to be; to become
to do; to carry out; to cause to become; to make (into); to serve as; to act as; to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
adds force or indicates command
good; excellent; sufficient; enough; profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
is not; am not; are not; isn't it?
suffix for familiar person
oh!; good heavens!; ugh!; oh no!; ah!; the penny drops!
both (hands, parents, sides, etc.); counter for carriages (e.g. in a train); counter for vehicles; ryō; tael; ryō; pre-Meiji unit of currency, orig. the value of one ryō of gold
seems; I think; I guess; don't you agree?; I thought you'd say that!
if; in case; as for; on the topic of; if that's the case; if so
ah!; oh!; yes; indeed; aah; gah
what; you-know-what; that thing; whatsit; whachamacallit; (not) at all; (not) in the slightest
to understand; to comprehend; to become clear; to be known; I know!; I think so too!
to be; to exist; to have; to be located; to be equipped with; to happen
this; this one; this person; now; this point (in time); here; used to stress the subject of a sentence
what!; oh; what the heck; what the; damn
to say; to utter; to name; to call; to go (e.g. "the alarm went ping"); to make a noise
to be (of animate objects); to exist; to stay; to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing
but; however; even; however; no matter how; ... or something; either ... or ...
this; last (couple of years, etc.); these; you (as in "you liar")
what; how many; many; a lot of; several; a few