indicates possessive; nominalizes verbs and adjectives; substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases; (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion; (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis; (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
indicates sentence topic; indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated); adds emphasis
at (place, time); in; to (direction, state); toward; for (purpose); because of (reason); for
indicates sentence subject (occasionally object); indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions); but; however; regardless of; whether (or not)
indicates direct object of action; indicates subject of causative expression; indicates an area traversed; indicates time (period) over which action takes place; indicates point of departure or separation of action; indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
at; in; at; when; by; with; and then
if; when; and; with; used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.); promoted pawn; indicates a question
too; also; both A and B; A as well as B; even; as much as
be; is; did; (have) done; please; do
hey; you; hey; hey; hold on; yo
from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since; from (originator); by; because; since; out of (constituent, part)
indicates a question; or; whether or not; some- (e.g. something, someone); hmm; huh; very
to do; to carry out; to cause to become; to make (into); to serve as; to act as; to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
to become; to get; to result in; to turn out; to consist of; to be composed of; to be completed
right?; isn't it?; hey; say; you know; you see; will you?
that; it; then; that point (in time); (arch.) there; (arch.) you
you said; he said; if ... then; do you seriously think that; I already told you; you should know by now that; the said ...
to say; to utter; to name; to call; to go (e.g. "the alarm went ping"); to make a noise
the expectation is that ...; the reason is that ...; the fact is that ...; the explanation is that ...; it is that ...
to be (of animate objects); to exist; to stay; to be ...-ing; to have been ...-ing
to think; to consider; to think (of doing); to plan (to do); to judge; to assess; to imagine
that; the; part (as in "part two"); um ...; er ...
in that way; thus; so; so?
but; however; even; however; no matter how; ... or something; either ... or ...
only; just; merely; as much as; to the extent of; enough to
good; excellent; sufficient; enough; profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
to see; to look; to examine; to look over; to look after; to attend to; to experience
seems; I think; I guess; don't you agree?; I thought you'd say that!
until (a time); till; to (a place or person); as far as; to (an extent); up to
now; soon; already; yet; further; more
if; in case; as for; on the topic of; if that's the case; if so
to go; to move (in a direction or towards a specific location); to proceed; to take place; to pass through; to come and go; to walk
here; this place; this point; here; these past ... (e.g. three years); these last ...
now; the present time; just now; another; more
to be aware of; to know; to notice; to feel; to understand; to comprehend; to remember
person; someone; human beings; mankind; human (Homo sapiens); (other) people; others
ah!; oh!; yes; indeed; aah; gah
such things as ...; and ... and; the minute (that) ...; no sooner than ...; be; is; o
face; visage; look; expression; honor; honour
in front (of); before (e.g. a building); before; earlier; (the) front; frontal part; forward
how; in what way; how about
although; despite; whereas; while; if only; I wish
after all; because; but; even; too; as well
again; once more; also; too; on the other hand; while; and
good; advantage; sake; purpose; consequence; result
this sort of; this kind of; like this; such