indicates possessive; nominalizes verbs and adjectives; substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases; (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion; (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis; (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
new rice field; newly developed rice field; wasteland or marshland newly reclaimed as a rice field (Edo period)
suffix for familiar person
for; for the sake of; to one's advantage; because of; as a result of
yes; that is correct; um; errr; huh?; grrr
diligently; seriously; perfectly; properly; sufficiently; satisfactorily
topic marker particle; indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated); adds emphasis
in front (of); before (e.g. a building); before; earlier; (the) front; frontal part; forward
from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since; from (originator); by; because; since; out of (constituent, part)
junior high school; middle school; lower secondary school
by the way; incidentally; sometimes; occasionally; precisely (at that time); exactly
such; that sort of; that kind of; no way!; never!
talk; speech; topic; subject; discussions; negotiation; rumor
to hear; to listen (e.g. to music); to ask; to enquire; to hear about; to hear of; to follow (advice, order, etc.)
thing; matter; incident; occurrence; circumstances; situation; work
at (place, time); in; to (direction, state); toward; for (purpose); because of (reason); for
to meet; to encounter; to see; to have an accident; to have a bad experience
indicates direct object of action; indicates subject of causative expression; indicates an area traversed; indicates time (period) over which action takes place; indicates point of departure or separation of action; indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
to start; to begin; to start up (a business, society, etc.); to open (e.g. a store); to start ...; to begin to ...
the expectation is that ...; the reason is that ...; the fact is that ...; the explanation is that ...; it is that ...
what; you-know-what; that thing; whatsit; whachamacallit; (not) at all; (not) in the slightest
to do; to undertake; to send; to dispatch; to put; to move; to give (esp. to someone of equal or lower status)
too; also; both A and B; A as well as B; even; as much as
to lose; to be defeated; to succumb; to give in; to be inferior to; to break out in a rash due to (e.g. lacquer, shaving, etc.)
nonexistent; not being (there); unowned; not had; unique; not; impossible
indicates sentence subject (occasionally object); indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions); but; however; regardless of; whether (or not)
to request; to beg; to call; to order; to entrust to; to rely on
to leave; to exit; to leave (on a journey); to depart; to move forward; to come to; to get to
practice game; practice match; scrimmage; workout
at; in; at; when; by; with; and then
if; when; and; with; used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.); promoted pawn; indicates a question
for the first time; only after ... is it ...; only when ... do you ...
fighting (against); taking on (an opponent); facing; confronting; competing (with); battle
batter's box; one's turn at bat
strikeout; strike out; fanning out
shallow tray (usu. steel or plastic)
sphere; counter for balls
yes?; no?; or; whether or not; some- (e.g. something, someone); hmm; huh
to imitate; to copy; to mock; to trace; to forge
and; and then; thus; and now; and finally