indicates possessive; nominalizes verbs and adjectives; substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases; (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion; (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis; (at sentence-end, rising tone) indicates question
indicates sentence topic; indicates contrast with another option (stated or unstated); adds emphasis
at (place, time); in; to (direction, state); toward; for (purpose); because of (reason); for
indicates direct object of action; indicates subject of causative expression; indicates an area traversed; indicates time (period) over which action takes place; indicates point of departure or separation of action; indicates object of desire, like, hate, etc.
indicates sentence subject (occasionally object); indicates possessive (esp. in literary expressions); but; however; regardless of; whether (or not)
too; also; both A and B; A as well as B; even; as much as
if; when; and; with; used for quoting (thoughts, speech, etc.); promoted pawn; indicates a question
at; in; at; when; by; with; and then
senior (at work or school); superior; elder; older graduate; progenitor; old-timer
you said; he said; if ... then; do you seriously think that; I already told you; you should know by now that; the said ...
the expectation is that ...; the reason is that ...; the fact is that ...; the explanation is that ...; it is that ...
from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since; from (originator); by; because; since; out of (constituent, part)
to do; to carry out; to cause to become; to make (into); to serve as; to act as; to wear (clothes, a facial expression, etc.)
be; is; did; (have) done; please; do
thing; matter; incident; occurrence; circumstances; situation; work
that; it; then; that point (in time); (arch.) there; (arch.) you
to give; to let (one) have; to give; to do for one; to take the trouble to do; to do to someone's disadvantage
hey; you; hey; hey; hold on; yo
to say; to utter; to name; to call; to go (e.g. "the alarm went ping"); to make a noise
Mr.; Mrs.; Miss; politeness marker
indicates a question; or; whether or not; some- (e.g. something, someone); hmm; huh; very
don't; do; hey; listen; now, ...; well, ...
and; besides; because; since; the thing is; for one thing
right?; isn't it?; hey; say; you know; you see; will you?
to become; to get; to result in; to turn out; to consist of; to be composed of; to be completed
ah!; oh!; yes; indeed; aah; gah
in that way; thus; so; so?
to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to come back; to do ... and come back; to come to be; to become
but; however; even; however; no matter how; ... or something; either ... or ...
to think; to consider; to think (of doing); to plan (to do); to judge; to assess; to imagine
so; therefore; accordingly; like I said; I told you already
yes; indeed; ha!; what?; huh?; sigh
myself; yourself; I; me; you
yes; that is correct; understood; I see; present; here; pardon?
good; excellent; sufficient; enough; profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
hm; um; huh?; what?; nuh-uh; no
now; soon; already; yet; further; more
yes; yeah; hum; hmmm; oof
yes; yeah; huh?; what?; not; 's
to understand; to comprehend; to become clear; to be known; I know!; I think so too!
that; the; part (as in "part two"); um ...; er ...
to go; to move (in a direction or towards a specific location); to proceed; to take place; to pass through; to come and go; to walk
to be; to exist; to have; to be located; to be equipped with; to happen